Canada

% annual growth rate:

  M3 Nominal GDP
1971- 2020 9.03% 6.66%
1971-1980 16.79% 13.33%
1981-1990 8.18% 8.05%
1991-2000 4.98% 4.78%
2001-2010 7.52% 4.24%
2011-2020 7.76% 2.83%

Sources: M3 from OECD database and nominal GDP from IMF database, as at February 2022.

The medium-term relationship between money and nominal GDP growth in Canada, 1971-2020

Five-year moving averages of annual % changes, with 1973 being the start of the first five-year period

Comment on monetary trends in Canada

With the exception of the oil crisis of the 1970s, Canada has maintained relatively stable and moderate rates of growth of broad money compatible with low inflation and steady economic growth for several decades. In the years running up to the Global Financial Crisis, excessive broad money growth  - 10.2% annual growth in 2004, 9.86% in 2006 and 12.1% in 2007 - did result in asset price inflation, both in residential property and stock markets. However, in the aftermath of the Great Recession, Canada returned to stable rates of money and output growth far quicker than most other developed economies. The steady rate of growth of M3 at an average of 7% since 2010 has been accompanied by a sustained annual rate of growth of the economy around 4%, and quite stable inflation within the inflation target range of 1-3% (but ideally 2%) followed by the Bank of Canada.

The scale of the Canadian fiscal and monetary response to the coronavirus pandemic of 2020 was exceeded only by the USA. Annualised quarterly broad money growth rose to over 37% at one point in the spring of 2020. It also rose above 15% in the second half of 2021, although the current figure is just 8%. The Bank of Canada has started raising its main policy rate and it announced that as from 25th April 2022, it will not be reinvesting the assets purchased over the last two years. This will slow money growth further although consumer price inflation, which stood at 6.8% in the year to April (the highest reading in over 30 years), could well rise further before it starts to fall back.