New Zealand

% annual growth rate:

  M3 Nominal GDP
1981-2020 10.79% 6.91%
1981-1990 20.75% 12.84%
1991-2000 6.25% 4.48%
2001-2010 8.15% 5.48%
2011-2020 8.01% 4.82%

Sources: M3 from Reserve Bank of New Zealand database and nominal GDP from IMF database, as at February 2022

The medium-term relationship between money and nominal GDP growth in New Zealand, 1981-2020

Five-year moving averages of annual % changes, with 1983 being the start of the first five-year period

Comment on monetary trends in New Zealand

Although a separate currency from sterling since 1933, the New Zealand pound was aligned with the UK currency on and off until 1967, when sterling devalued and New Zealand introduced its own currency, the dollar, which was initially pegged to the US dollar and did not float freely until 1985. Also at this time, New Zealand's financial markets were liberalised. Up to this point, there had been a number of direct controls on the operations of financial institutions.

The 1980s saw very high levels of broad money growth but also a severe recession, with high levels both of unemployment and inflation. The authorities at the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (the country's central bank) were aware of renewed interest in monetarism elsewhere in the anglophone world, and sought to control the growth in the quantity of money to bring inflation levels down. Regrettably, from the 1990s onwards, less importance has placed on the quantity of money when determining monetary policy. However, the actions taken in the 1980s, along with a programme of privatisation, liberalisation and deregulation, has resulted in the country enjoying a long period of stable broad money growth since the 1990s without the peaks and troughs of earlier years. New Zealand was the first country to introduce 'Inflation Targeting' in 1989, which contributed to the adoption of policies committed to maintaining price stability. The success of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand was later on emulated by other central banks by also adopting an explicit inflation target in the 1990. Inflation has remained at modest levels and only briefly during the Great Depression of 2008-9 has the country experienced a decline in GDP. Indeed, New Zealand recovered far more rapidly from this crisis and stable broad money growth continued throughout the 2010s.